The Crusader Periode in the Baltic region

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Flags for the Teutonic Order
  1. The Gonfanon & Rehnfahne of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
  2. Gonfanon of the Teutonic Order, Imperial Warflag of the German Empire
  3. Gonfanon of the Treasurer of the Teutonic Order, Conrad the White (Polish), town of Kulm
  4. Komturia of Königsberg, Komturia of Balga, Komturia of Schönsee
  5. Bishopric of Pomesania, Komturia of Graudenz
  6. Great Komturia of Stuhm, Komturia of Tuchel, Komturia of Nessau, Komturia of Althaus, Bailiff of Samland
  7. Westphalian Knights, Bailiff of Roggenhausen, Banner of the Komtur & Vice-Komtur of Elbing
  8. Komturia of Engelsburg, Komturia of Strasburg, Bishopric of Samland
  9. Bailiff of Leske, Bailiff of Brattian, Citizen militia of Elbing
  10. One unknown banner, Town of Braunsberg, Second banner of Komturia of Mewe
  11. Komturia of Schlochau, Bishopric of Ermland & town of Heilsberg
  12. District of Ortelsburg, Komturia of Ragnit, Komturia of Osterode, Komturia of Schwetz
  13. Bailwick of Dirschau, City of Königsberg, Town of Allenstein, Unknown flag
  14. Town of Bartenstein, District of Kulmerland
  15. Town of Mewe, City of Danzig, Knights of Meissen, Knights of Thüringen
  16. Cassimir Lord of Stolp (Polish), Town of Thorn
  17. Town of Heiligenbeil, Komturia of Brandenburg, Two banners for the Komturia of Danzig
  18. Banner of the Marshal of Livland, Komturia of Ascheraden, Two banners for the Komturia of Fellin
  19. The Virgin Banner at Tannenberg/Grunwald, Teutonic Pennoncelles
The flags for the Teutonic Order captured at the Battle of Grunwald, A.D. 1410, are based on photos of the original manuscript Banderia Prutenorum comissioned in 1448 by the Polish historian Jan Dlugosz. The manuscript also includes flags captured at Polnisch-Krone(1410) & Nakel(1431). There is also an indication that two of the flags were captured after 1410, but it’s not known which. In the Cracow Church Calender an entry was made in 1422 which states that there hangs 39 flags in the cachedral.

The flag size is sometimes available. The painter Durink used the medieval Polish measure ulna which could vary between 47,24cm & 68,78cm across Poland. The “ulna” size used by Durink is not known. Unfortunately the proportions mentioned by Durink do not always match the painted flag (see for example the city of Kulm or the Westphalian knights), also he gives length and width based on the painted picture rather than for a flag extended from the staff, which can cause confusion. I have tried to stay as close as possible to the original paintings.

It may also be necessary to adjust the part of the flag which goes around the staff for optimal fit as the color often differs from the rest of the flag.

Finally the ten flags painted on the right side in the book where added later and without Durink having seen them so they may not as reliable as the others. (Ekdahl, pp 87-97)

Literature: Die Banderia Prutenorum des Jan Dlugosz – eine Quelle zur Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410 by Sven Ekdahl, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Göttingen, 1976. For more information. Banderia Prutenorum Includes links to photos of the original manuscript.
Flags for the Polish Army at Grunwald/Tannenberg
  1. The Great Banner of Krakow & the Kingdom of Poland, Banner of St. Florian, Personal banner of King Wladyslaw II Jagiello, the Goncza banner
  2. Voivodeship of Wielkopolska, Lublin, Cuyavia
  3. Voivodeship of Kalisz, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Leczyca
  4. Duke Siemowit IV of Masovia, Voivodeship of Dobrzyn, Chelm
  5. Duke Janusz I of Masovia
  6. Archbishop of Gniezno – Mikolaj Kurowski, Mikolaj Kmita of Wisnicz, Dobko of Olesnica, Castellan of Wojnice – Andrzej of Teczyn, Castellan of Krakow – Krystyn of Ostrow
  7. Iwo of Obiechow (Castellan of S’rem), Gniewosz of Dalewice (Steward of the Crown), Marcin of Slawsko (Lord High Steward of Kalisz)
  8. Wojciech Jastrzebiec (Bishop of Poznan), Mikolaj of Michalowo (Voivod of Sandomierz), Jan of Tarnow (Voivod of Krakow), Spytko of Tarnow, Wincenty of Granow (Mayor of Greater Poland)
  9. Dobrogost Swidwa of Szamotuly, Sedziwoj of Ostrorog (Voivod of Poznan), Jan Ligeza (Voivod of Leczyca), Jakub of Koniecpol (Voivod of Sieradz)
  10. Zbibniew of Brzezie (Marshal of the Crown), Piotr Szafraniec (Chambelain of Krakow), Klemens of Moskorzów (Castellan of Wislica), Krystyn of Kozieglowy, Jan Mezyk (Master King’s Cup-Bearer)
  11. Gryf Clan, Kozlerogi Clan, Lan of Jicin, Mikolaj Traba (Deputy Chancellor of the Crown), Zaklika of Korzkiew
Flags for the Lithuanian Army at Grunwald/Tannenberg
  1. Pogon Banner, Grand Duke Vytautas the Great, Duke Sigismund Kestutaitis, Duke Sigismund Korybut
  2. Vytis banners no.I
  3. Vytis banners no. II
  4. Vytis banners no. III
  5. Vytis banners no. IV
  6. Vytis banners no. V
  7. Banners of Gediminas
  8. Voivodeships of Podolia, Halicz & Lwow
  9. Banners of Trakai, Nowogrodek/Navahradak, Volhynia
  10. Banners of Samogitia
  11. Banners of Kiev & Smolensk Moldovia:
  12. Banners of Moldovian infantry no.I
The flags for the Polish and Lithuanian armies at Grunwald are based on this Wikipedia site.Grunwald The flag designs are purely speculative, but should make for some nice accessories for a Later Polish/Lithuanian army

For variations go to Alex’s Flags and Matthew Haywood's site WarfareEast

Flags for the Danish armies (1200-1500)
I have divided Denmark into the three main provinces. These provinces had their own laws; courts and elected their own king, so nobles from a province would fight together. The exception is the Højadel who could own land everywhere and have military respondsibilities as well be the King's Councillors. Sønderjylland (Southern Jutland) was a special case. It had a very powerful Jarl appointed by the King with the obligation of protecting the border to the Empire (the Jarl was always related to the royal house). Sønderjylland became a duchy in the early 12th Cen. and a direct fief from the King. Later the name changed to Slesvig after the biggest town in the duchy.

Flags for the German county of Holstein can be found in the section for the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Holstein was at times a mortal enemy and at times part of the possessions of the Danish Kings. Controlled by King Valdemar Sejr (1203-1227) and in 1460 King Christian I of Denmark was elected Count of Holstein after the old family of counts died out (the Schaumburgers). The Mecklenburgers at times were also closely connected with Denmark and Sweden. The flags can be used for German mercenaries in a Danish army or a pure Holstein army, of couse. The same goes for the Mecklenburgers; both in a Danish but also in a Swedish army. A number of Holsteiner & Mecklenburger and other German nobles settled in Denmark ditto Sweden.

    Denmark (miscellaneous)
  1. King of Denmark
  2. Kalmar Union, King Erik af Pommern
  3. The Dannebrog, Duke of Estonia & Blekinge & Southern Halland (Skarsholm), Count of Halland & Counts of Northern Halland

    Skåneland: (Scania, Halland & Blekinge)
  4. Thott, Drefeld, Brahe, Has, Grim, Bing
  5. Geed, Saxtruo, Hak, Gere, Neb, Dotting
  6. Krognos, Sparre af Skåne, Rosensparre, Laxmand, Hollunger, Gagge
  7. Urup, Litle, Båd af Halland, Kyrning, Porse
  8. Ribbing, Ulfstand, Mormand, Krabbe af Halland, Pæp af Halland, Uf
  9. Podebusk, Svarteskåning, Bostrup, Jordbjerg
  10. Town of Lund, Town of Ystad, Myndel, Bielke

    Sjælland: (Zealand and surrounding islands)
  11. Manderup, Lunge, Town of Roskilde, Bille
  12. Dyre, Galt of Zealand, Due, Beck, Falster, Blå
  13. Falk af Gisselfeld, Grubendal, Sjællandsfar, Uldsax, Hase, Steensen
  14. The old Basse, Bang af Lolland, Skade af Sjælland, Skave, Bonde af Lolland, Bycere
  15. Erik Sjællandsfar, The new Basser, Sparre af Sjælland, Grubbe, Griis af Nordrup, The proud Gøye'r
  16. Glug, Town of Slagelse, Bydelsbak af Bregentved, Bydelsbak af Torbenfeldt, Gynceke, Gyrstinge
  17. The Hvide Clan (I)
  18. The Hvide Clan (II)
  19. Globe, Ulfeldt, Markmand af Falster, Ravnsberg, Brymle, Krage på Sjælland, Rud, Mule af Falster

    Fyn (part of the same province as Zealand): Funen and surrounding islands
  20. Krafse, Bjørn, Brockenhuus, Huitfeldt, Bild of Fyn, Algudsen
  21. Friis af Fyn (ancient & modern), Town of Nyborg, Månestjerne, Skinkel-Lily, Krumstrup
  22. Sund Herred Militia, Bølle, Baad af Fyn, Lykke af Fyn, Båd af Langeland, Norby af Uggerslev
  23. Town of Svendborg, Town of Fåborg, Marsvin

    Jylland: (Jutland)
  24. Krabbe af Østergård, Bild, Benderup
  25. Bugge, Høegh, Jude, Banner, Galt of Jutland, Jydske Hvide
  26. Iuul, Stjerne-Juel, Galskyt, Fasti, Blik, Skovgård
  27. Skeel, Sandberg, Vifert, Vind, Stangeberg, Brok (Younger)
  28. Bryske, Brok (Oldest), Rotfeld, Hvas af Ormstrup, Grøn, Genvæther
  29. Eberstein, Vendelbo, Skarpenberg, Saltensee af Linde, Skiernov
  30. Lykke, Krage i Jylland, Pig i Jylland, Steenfeld, Sommer, Spend, Steeg, Udsen, Stenbrikke, Tornekrands
  31. Løvenbalk, Kås, Vognsen af Hørbyland, Skale, Skobe, Lange
  32. Town of Ribe, Town of Viborg, Lunov (black), Lunov (red), Panter

    Sønderjylland/Slesvig: (Southern Jutland/Duchy of Slesvig)
  33. Duke of Slesvig, Abildgård, Friis af Vadskærgaard, Frille
  34. Sappi, Petersen, Holck, Skram, Då, Emmiksen
  35. Urne, Lund, Jul, Jernskæg, Saltenpenst, Lindenov
  36. Friis af Haraldskær, Limbek, Kalf, Staverskov, Råstad, Town of Slesvig
Flags for the Swedish armies (1200-1500)
  1. Algot, Puke(I), Engelbrechtsson, Bonde,
  2. Drake af Sunnerbo, Lillie, Aspernäs, Fånö, Puke(II)
  3. Tilbackeseende Ulv, And, Ama, Brunkow, Sparre af Vik, Sparre af Aspernäs
  4. Vingad Pil, Trolle, Brahe/Plata, Ving
  5. Tre Kronar & various Swedish kings & a duke of Finland
  6. More kings
  7. Stensta, Stenbock, Lagman, Lejonhuvud, Magnus Marinason, Halsten Petersson's Lineage
  8. Grip (old), Bielke, Lars Björnsson, Baner, Stierna, Lejonansikte
  9. Mats Kettilmundsson, Läma, Rumby, Bastard line of the Folkunga
  10. Eta (senior & junior line), Oxenstierna, Lake, Hammarsta, Virske, Bengt Halfridsson, Schack af Skylvalla
  11. Hård af Kallset, Cruus af Harfvila, Gumsehuvud, Stora Wånga, Slatte, Snakenborg, Vasa, Folkunga, Kagge
  12. Vinstorp (old & new I & II - lines), Finsta, Drake af Intorp, Prika, Sparre over blad
  13. Posse, Gren, Örnfot, Stierna, Duke Erik Magnusson, Gädda, Lilliesparre
  14. Birger Brosa, Ulvå, Harald Gudmundsson, Lejonbalk, Örnsparre, Torgils Knutson
  15. Gera, Horn af Åminne, Malsta-lineage, Gylta, Ulfsax
Scandinavia (ca AD 1150-1500)

Based on CoAs from these websites: Steen Thomsen's Adelsvåben & Roskildehistorie. Both sites are under construction so includes errors. It also fogs up things that the topic, Scandinavian CoAs, is poorly covered literaturewise.

CoAs came to Scandinavia at the same time as Northern Germany ca. late 12th Century. Unfortunately we have not been blessed with armorials from the Middle Ages so these CoA are from castles, churches, seals, furniture, etc., etc. So the CoA used can be the most likely for a noble family, but it's not 100% certain. And for the smaller, more obscure nobles the tinctures are not always certain. High ranking clerics would use their family CoA if they were of noble blood as there was no tradition of separate CoAs for bishops.
Scandinavia followed the North-German tradition of all male members using the same CoA. (a normal but not a fixed rule). The first known date in which a member of a family is mentioned is in the brackets (example: Thott (1283)). But a family could easily have been nobles for a long time before they pop up in written documents for the first time.

As for the family name given to the CoA that is from a later time in most cases. In Denmark nobles were first required to take a family name in 1525. Cirka same time as in Sweden & Norway. The norm was to follow a patronymic tradition and add the ending (-sen; for Denmark) and (-son; for Norway & Sweden). So a Danish noble Erik Nielsen would have a father named Niels. Erik's son could be named Harald Eriksen, and so forth.

The old title of Jarl (Earl) disappeared during the 12th & 13th Centuries and were replaced with the German Count & Duke titles, but these titles were rare. In Denmark nobles have been divided according to the size of their land holdings into two groups by historians; Højadel (high nobility) & Lavadel (low nobility). The Højadel had the money/influence to compete for the positions as Councillors of the Realm (a Rigsråd aka a minister of the King). If you fell on hard times as a member of the Lavadel you would drop to the rank of peasant; a oneway ticket. Sweden seems to be similar.

Norway sticks out in that the King quickly came to dominate with the help of the church. So weak nobles and few of them. Also most Norwegian noble families died out from the Black Plague or shortly after. Before A.D. 1250 use viking-inspired flags & banners. As CoA's came late to Norway ca mid-13th century so you may consider mixing some viking-age banners into a Norwegian late-13th century army. The best use of the Norwegian CoA banners would be to mix them into a Swedish-Norwegian army or a Danish Kalmar Union army as a bit of spice.